Gregarious under Alnus incana (and
more rarely Picea abies). A few Finnish records and one record from Norway.
mm across, at first convex, remaining so or becoming irregularly
plane with an undulating partly elevated margin, glabrous,
hygrophanous, weakly translucent-striate when moist, sordid
lilac when fresh, more brownish in age; surface dry, slightly
rugose. Lamellae 28 to more than
30 reaching the stipe, ascending, adnate to broadly adnate
or almost decurrent, becoming dorsally intervenose, sordid
lilac, densely punctate by minute, dark purplish brown dots
(pleurocystidia), and with entirely dark violet edge. Stipe
30-70 x 3-10 mm, occasionally somewhat rooting, widened downwards but basally narrower,
hollow, straight, curved below, terete, covered with conspicuous,
very small dark granules at the apex, dry, pale sordid lilac,
yellowish at the base. Odour distinctly
of radish. Taste mild, of radish. All parts of the basidiocarp
often blackening when drying.
Basidia 27-30 x
6.5-8 µm, slender-clavate, 4-spored. Spores
(6-)7.5-9 x (3.5-)4-5 µm, Q = 1.4-2.3, Qav ~ 1.8, pip-shaped or somewhat
cylindrical, smooth, weakly amyloid. Cheilocystidia
43-88 x 7-17 µm, occuring mixed with basidia,
strongly protruding, fusiform, with long, narrow necks, with purplish brown contents. Pleurocystidia
numerous, similar, but often shorter, with purplish brown
contents. Hyphae of the pileipellis
up to 3.5 µm wide, smooth. Hyphae of the
cortical layer of the stipe up to 2.5 µm
wide, smooth, the terminal cells cylindrical, curved outwards. Clamp connections present at all tissues.
Microphotos of cheilocystidia and spores.
The macroscopic description has been taken
from Harmaja's and Maas Geesteranus' descriptions complemented
by my own observations on the dried material. The microscopic
details are based on examination of five Finnish collections.
Harmaja (1985: 44) described the until then
unknown species M. lammiensis
from Finland under Alnus incana (and more
rarely Picea abies). It shares many features with
like the violaceous tints, the raphanoid smell, and the
dark violet lamellar edge. Microscopically the two species
are quite similar too, the only distinct difference being
the spore size. In M.
pelianthina the spores rarely are more
than 4 µm broad, while in M. lammiensis
they are almost always broader than 4 µm.
The shape of the spores may be somewhat different too. In
the spores are somewhat narrowly pip-shaped, while in M.
lammiensis they are pip-shaped to somewhat
cylindrical. This is, however, hardly a distinct specific
character. Harmaja claimed that the
cystidia of M. lammiensis were narrower
than the counterparts in M.
pelianthina, and that they had longer
and narrower necks. Although the outer measurements do not
differ much, my impression is that Harmaja is right on this
point. The cheilocystidia generally seem to be narrower
and with narrower and longer necks in M. lammiensis.
Another difference is that the cheilocystidia are much more
protruding in M. lammiensis
than the counterparts in M. pelianthina.
It is not clear to me whether the colour of
the pileus is different between the two species. In Mycena
pelianthina the colour is date brown to
pale brown with purplish to violaceous tinges, drying to
pale ochraceous or beige, with or without a pinkish shade.
The descriptions of M. lammiensis
suggest a more dingy lilac colour, which is turning more
brownish with age. The blackening process when drying seems
to be similar in both species.
Harmaja (1985) and Maas Geesteranus (1992:
405) discussed the very slight differences between M.
lammiensis and the American species M.
rutilantiformis, and concluded somewhat hesitantly
that M. lammiensis is a species
in its own right. The recognition of M. lammiensis as a distinct species different from M. pelianthina was recently supported by phylogenetic analyses (Harder et al. 2010) also showing that the average spore width is a valid criterion to discriminate between the two species.
Mycena lammiensis is known from 15 collections in Finland and is red listed as Near Threatened (NT) (Finnish Biodiversity Information Facility 2023). An interesting question is if the Norwegian
collections of M. pelianthina, collected under Alnus, from central and Northern parts of the country
actually would prove to represent M. lammiensis, as suggested by Harmaja (2002: 25).
Examination of three collections from the herbarium in Oslo,
and five collections from Tromsø, however, showed
without doubt that they are M. pelianthina. This has been cofirmed by sequences in the Norwegian Barcoding Project (NorBOL). In 2021, however, the first record of M. lammiensis was registered under Alnus at Dovre, Innlandet. The collection had spores matching M. lammiensis and matched a Finnish sequence in GenBank 100%.
belongs to the section Calodontes on account of the large size,
the purplish or violaceous tints, and the raphanoid odour.
Within this section it is placed in subsection Marginatae
together with M.
pelianthina and M. rutilantiformis because of the intensely coloured lamellar edge.
The latter has only been recorded from the United States.
Harmaja (2002) transferred Mycena lammiensis
to the genus Prunulus, a
point of view that has not been followed at this web site.
I will express my thanks to the authorities
of the herbarium in Helsinki for the loan of the holotype
of M. lammiensis and an additional
collection from Turku (Leg. S. Huhtinen, 30 Aug. 1985), and to J. Vauras, Turku, for providing me with copies of photos and an additional collection.
Etelä-Häme: Lammi, Hauhiala,
S shore of Lamminjärvi 5 Sept. 1978, Anne Sairanen
Sb, Vehmersalmi, Puutosmäki, Pitkälahti,
grid 6956:541, by the old limestone quarries, thicket of
Alnus, with Daphne, Populus tremula 30 Aug. 1985, S. Huhtinen
PS. Vehmersalmi, (Soisalo), Puutosmäki,
grid 27° E: 69568:5413, 12 Aug. 1992, Pekka Heinonen
Keski-Pohjanmaa, Kalajoki commune, Rahja-Roukala,
grid 27° E: 7125:341, damp, herb-rich forest with mainly Alnus incana and scattered Prunus padus, Picea abies, and
Betula, on litter 11. Sept. 2004, Katri Kokkonen 271/04
Koillismaa, Kuusamo, Oulanka National Park, Liikasenvaara, grid 27° E: 7362:612, moist brookside forest with Betula, and Alnus incana, under Alnus incana, 24 Aug. 2005, leg. Esteri Ohenoja, Jukka Vauras 23266F (TUR).
Outer Ostrobothnia (PeP), Rovaniemi, Omalamminoja, 05.09.2013, leg. A. Aronsen & T. von Bonsdorff (herb. Aronsen).
Innlandet, Dovre, Joris delta, 12. Aug. 2021, 'I fukta oreskog'. Leg. Perry Larsen, Tor Erik Brandrud, Siri Khalsa (O-F-258897).